14B - American IPA
(India Pale Ale)
American IPA, like most American versions of English styles, is bigger and bolder with a prodigious amount of citrusy, piney, resiny and fruity American hops. The style has been around for some time and many breweries brew and IPA in America. The style as we know it today, however, has only been around since the early 1970's. There are arguments as to which beer started the "American IPA" movement, but most will agree that it started with Ballantine's IPA, which some say was brewed just after prohibition was repealed. It had an ABV of 7.5% and an IBU level in the 60-70 IBU range. The beer was aged in oak for a full year giving the beer a wonderfully complex flavor. The current craze and popularity of American hop bombs may have began with Anchor's Liberty Ale which was originally brewed in 1975. Not long after, Grant's IPA (released in 1981) and Sierra Nevada's Celebration Ale (released in 1983) were released to meet America's growing appetite with bold hoppy beers. Americans were tired of the same old lagers and once we got a taste for these big beers, have not looked back.
Some versions of the American IPA are more traditional, more so than most English IPA's brewed today. They are somewhat pale with high hop bitterness that dominates the profile. These beers have a lot of hop aroma with low to medium hop flavor. More contemporary versions are similar in that they have high hop bitterness, but go one step further and add a big hop flavor as well as aroma. The American IPA's of today are dominated by the citrusy, piney, fruity and resiny hop character typical of Northwest American hops. The malt profile is generally low and clean with American 2-row the malt of choice. The use of Crystal malts is OK, but should be used with restraint.
To brew an American IPA, use a clean American yeast for best results, especially for competitions. These yeasts will give you the best attenuation and subdued ester profile the style demands. If you decide to use an English yeast instead of American, ferment at the lower end of the yeast's tolerance and substitute some sugar for the malt to make the beer more fermentable to allow the final gravity to come down. If you choose to use an English malt, such as Maris Otter, cut back on other malts such as Munich to reduce the overall malt character. I have had some luck in competitions with this style. But what I have found is that most judges prefer a fresher version of the beer, even though they may say something like "enter this beer again once it has had time to age". Most of the hop flavor and aroma will drop out with aging, and the judges can't seem to tell the difference between a well aged version and a version that was brewed with too little up-front hop character. These beers age well and can be a real pleasure to drink by the fireside, but as far as competitions go, I'd brew a fresh batch each year and enter it after 6 months of aging.
- Aroma: An American IPA has a prominent to intense hop aroma with a citrusy, floral, perfume-like, resinous, piney, and/or fruity character derived from American hop varieties. Many versions are dry hopped and can have an additional grassy aroma, although this is not required. Some clean malty sweetness may be found in the background, but should be at a lower level than in English examples. Fruitiness, either from esters or hops, may also be detected in some versions, although a neutral fermentation character is also acceptable. Some alcohol may be noted as well.
- Appearance: The color ranges from medium gold to medium reddish copper; some versions can have an orange-ish tint. American IPA's should be clear, although unfiltered dry-hopped versions may be hazy. Your beer should have a persistent white to off-white head that lingers.
- Flavor: Hop flavor is medium to high, and should reflect an American hop character with citrusy, floral, resinous, piney or fruity aspects. Medium-high to very high hop bitterness, although the malt backbone will support the strong hop character and provide the best balance. Malt flavor should be low to medium, and is generally clean and malty sweet although some caramel or toasty flavors are acceptable at low levels. No diacetyl. Low fruitiness is acceptable but not required. The bitterness may linger into the aftertaste but should not be harsh. Medium-dry to dry finish. Some clean alcohol flavor can be noted in stronger versions. Oak is inappropriate in this style. May be slightly sulfury, but most examples do not exhibit this character.
- Mouthfeel: Smooth, medium-light to medium-bodied mouthfeel without hop-derived astringency, although moderate to medium-high carbonation can combine to render an overall dry sensation in the presence of malt sweetness. Some smooth alcohol warming can and should be sensed in stronger (but not all) versions. Body is generally less than in English counterparts.
- Overall Impression: An American IPA is a very hoppy and bitter, moderately strong American pale ale.
- History: An American version of the historical English style, brewed using American ingredients and attitude.
- Ingredients: Pale ale malt (well-modified and suitable for single-temperature infusion mashing); American hops; American yeast that can give a clean or slightly fruity profile. Generally all-malt, but mashed at lower temperatures for high attenuation. Water character varies from soft to moderately sulfate. Versions with a noticeable Rye character (“RyePA”) should be entered in the Specialty category.
- Vital Statistics: OG: 1.056 – 1.075 FG: 1.010 – 1.018 IBUs: 40 – 70 SRM: 6 – 15 ABV: 5.5 – 7.5%.
- Commercial Examples: Bell’s Two-Hearted Ale, AleSmith IPA, Russian River Blind Pig IPA, Stone IPA, Three Floyds Alpha King, Great Divide Titan IPA, Bear Republic Racer 5 IPA, Victory Hop Devil, Sierra Nevada Celebration Ale, Anderson Valley Hop Ottin’, Dogfish Head 60 Minute IPA, Founder’s Centennial IPA, Anchor Liberty Ale, Harpoon IPA, Avery IPA.
References: Information for this article was adapted from the 2008 BJCP Style Guidelines, and Brewing Classic Styles 80 Winning Recipes Anyone Can Brew, written by Jamil Zainasheff and John J. Palmer, and the Brewing in Styles section of Brewing Techniques magazine entitled India Pale Ale, Part II: The Sun Never Sets-- written by Thom Tomlinson.
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