Brewing Terms - A Glossary of Brewing Related Definitions


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AbsorptionThe penetration of a liquid or solid into or through another liquid or solid, the particles that are absorbed being molecular or micellar in size. A few solid bodies have the power of taking up or absorbing gases, for instance, charcoal or activated carbon.

  
AcidA hydrogen containing substance which will dissociate on solution in water to produce one or more hydrogen ions (H+).
  
AcrospireThe plumule in germinating grain.
  
AdjunctsUnmalted grain, sugars or syrups used in brewing.

  
AdsorptionThe adhesion, in an extremely thin layer of the molecules of gases, of dissolved substances, or of liquids, to the surfaces of solid bodies, with which they are in contact.
  
AerobicReferring to bacteria and other forms of life which require oxygen to live.
  
Aerobic Needing oxygen for growth.
  
Agar-AgarThe water soluble colloidal carbohydrate of the red seaweed, Gelidium; forms gels with as little as one part to 500 of water. It is used in preparing bacteriological media.
  
AlcoholAny of a series of organic compounds containing one or more hydroxyl OH) groups.
  
AleUsually refers to malt beverages where the wort is fermented with strains of yeast which tend to rise to the top of the vessel and form a yeast head at the end of fermentation.
  
Alkalinity The combining power of a base measured by the maximum number of equivalents of an acid with which it can react to form a salt.
  
AlloyThe product formed by the mixing of a metal with other metals.
  
Amino AcidsCompounds with an amino and a carboxyl group. Proteins are built up of amino acids connected by peptide linkages.
  
Amino acids Building blocks of proteins. There are twenty common amino acids: alanine, arginine, asparagine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glutamine, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, and valine.
  
AmmoniaA colorless, gaseous compound of nitrogen and hydrogen (NH3) of extremely pungent smell. Used as a refrigerant.
  
Amylases Are starch degrading enzymes.

Alpha Amylase: Degrades starch to a mixture of dextrins and sugars.
Beta Amylase: Degrades starch to maltose and beta limit dextrin.
  
AmylodextrinThe first hydrolysis product of starch with amylase; gives purple color with iodine.
  
AnaerobicReferring to bacteria and other forms of life that do not require oxygen to live.
  
Anaerobic Growing in the absence of oxygen.
  
AntisepticDestructive to microorganisms.
  
Apparent Attenuation The indication of the Balling or Plato hydrometer in Extract beer not de- alcoholized. Convenient for determining the degree of fermentation of beer with known original gravity.
  
AsepticFree of living organisms in any form.
  
AttenuationThe thinning down or reduction in wort concentration resulting from fermentation, decreasing the amount of extract.
  
AutolysisSelf-digestion of tissues, post mortem, often applied to yeast.
  
Bacterium Any of a large group of microscopic organisms with a very simple cell structure. Some manufacture their own food, some live as parasites on other organisms, and some live on decaying matter.
  
Barrela. Generic name for a cask or keg. b. Container for transporting draft beer. c. Unit of liquid volume measure: U.S. beer barrel = 31 U.S. Gallon Canada beer barrel = 25 Imp. Gallon British beer barrel = 36 Imp. Gallon
  
Beer StoneGrayish-brown deposit of calcium oxalate and organic matter on surface of equipment in prolonged contact with beer.
  
BetaIs an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of Glucanase randomly placed internal links in the beta glucan chain.
  
BiosVitamin necessary for yeast growth; found to be a mixture of i- inositol, vitamin (B1) and "biotin," and/or pantothenic acid.
  
BitternessThe bitter substances in beer which are mainly iso-alpha acids.
  
Bitterness Unit(BU)A method of measuring the degree of bitterness in beer. The bitter substances are extracted from acidified beer with iso-octane and the absorbance measured with a spectrophotometer at 275 nm.
  
BrilliancyProperty (of a beer) of being transparent and sparkling.
  
British Thermal Unit (BTU) Amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water, Unit (BTU) one degree Fahrenheit.
  
BuddingThe production of new yeast cells as buds from mother cells.
  
BufferAny substance, or combination of substances, which when dissolved in water produces a solution which resists a change in its hydrogen ion concentration upon the addition of acid or alkali.
  
BungingTo close a container with a bung or to connect a container to a pressure- regulating system; to maintain a certain counter pressure of CO2.
  
°B Degree Balling Grams of extract in 100 gm. water solution at 20°C., or pounds extract in 100 pounds of solution. Usually measured by determining specific gravity of the solution with a hydrometer (brewers use hydrometers which read directly in °B by referring to tables).
  
CalorieAmount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of water one degree Centigrade.
  
CarbohydrateAny one of a group of compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen usually as in water; viz., two H: one O. They are neutral compounds comprising the sugars, starches, celluloses, pentosans, galactans, etc.
  
Carbon DioxideA heavy, colorless, gas (CO2). Two grams fermented wort extract will produce about 1 gram of alcohol and 1 gram of CO2.
  
CarrageenanIs the polysaccharide fraction of Irish Moss, soluble in hot water.
  
CaskOriginally an oak container (barrel) with a side bung hole and tap for holding,transporting and dispensing beer. Later versions similar in design and concept but made from aluminum or stainless steel. Ranging in size from a Pin (4.5 Imp. Gallon) to a Hogs Head (54 Imp. Gallon).
  
CatalystAny substance which, by virtue of its presence, affects the rate of a chemical reaction and which may be recovered practically unchanged at the end of the reaction.
  
CheckA stoppage or slowing up of the main fermentation before the beer is completely attenuated.
  
Chit MaltVery short-grown malt.
  
CoagulationThe act or state of becoming viscous, jelly-like or solid, or of uniting into a coherent mass; especially the change from a liquid to a thickened, curd- like state by chemical reaction.
  
ColloidA state of subdivision of matter characterized by a particle size intermediate between molecular dispersion (true solution) and a size just about visible with an ordinary microscope.
  
CoolshipShallow tank for aeration, clarification and cooling of hot wort. Presently usually replaced by Whirlpool tank.
  
CouchBarley in the stage of beginning to sprout; to couch means to follow-up with an after or secondary steep.
  
Culture As a noun, cultivation of living organisms in prepared medium; as a verb, to grow in prepared medium.
  
Culture medium Any nutrient system for the artificial cultivation of bacteria or other cells; usually a complex mixture of organic and inorganic materials.
  
CytaseAn enzyme which has the power of dissolving the cellulose of the cell walls surrounding the starch granules.
  
DecoctionMash method involving the boiling of parts of the mash and return of coagulation. It is characterized by a loss of solubility at the iso electric points, greater susceptibility to proteolytic enzymes, and a change in the specific rotation. It does not occur without the presence of water.
  
DextrinA soluble, gummy carbohydrate formed by the decomposition of starch by heat, acids or enzymes.
  
DiastaseAn enzyme mixture capable of gelatinizing and converting starch to dextrins and sugars.
  
DiffusionThe flow of molecules, usually, but not necessarily, through a membrane.
  
DisaccharideThe sugar resulting from the condensation of two molecules of a monosaccharide, with the loss of water. Examples: sucrose, maltose, and lactose.
  
DisinfectingTo free from infection, especially destroying disease germs; to free from infesting insects.
  
DispersionAny mixture where one substance is very intimately intermingled with another. Most frequently a dispersion refers to a colloidal suspension.
  
DissociationThe splitting of a compound into two or more simpler molecules, atoms, or ions.
  
DistillationThe process of heating a liquid to its boiling point, removing the vapors through a cooling and condensing apparatus, and finally collecting the condensed vapors, as a liquid, in a separate receiver. Method of separating liquids from solids or liquids having different boiling points from each other by evaporation and condensation of the more volatile component.
  
DoublingThe addition of unyeasted wort to beer in the first stage of the main fermentation.
  
EmpiricalDepending on experience or observation alone.
  
EmulsionThe product of the dispersion of one liquid in another liquid, the dispersed phase particles being larger than colloidal size.
  
Endonuclease An enzyme that breaks nucleic acids at specific interior bonding sites, thus producing nucleic acid fragments of various lengths. Cf. Exonuclease.
  
EnzymeA catalyst made by a living cell. The brewer often supplements the natural enzymes of malt and grist with industrial enzymes which are extracted from plants or prepared by letting selected organisms "ferment" specially formulated media.
  
EssentialAny one of a class of odoriferous, volatile liquids, Oil insoluble in water, which are obtained from plants to which they impart odors and other characteristic properties.
  
EsterProduct of a reaction between an acid and alcohol.
  
EvaporationThe loss of water or volatile substances from liquids or solids.
  
Exonuclease An enzyme that breaks down nucleic acids only at the ends of polynucleotide chains, thus releasing one nucleotide at a time, in sequential order. Cf. Endonuclease
  
ExtractThe total solids contained in a liquid, (e.g., wort).
  
False BottomThe slotted or perforated, liftable plates in the Bottom straining tank, forming a support for the grains, a few inches above real bottom of strainer.
  
FermentationA process of growing micro-organisms for the production of various chemical or pharmaceutical compounds. Microbes are normally incubated under specific conditions in the presence of nutrients in large tanks called fermentors
  
Filter MassPrepared cotton used for beer filtration, at times containing synthetics.
  
FiningsMaterials to clarify beer, for instance, isinglass.
  
ForcingUndue speeding up of process, especially the germinating process.
  
Forcing TestMethod of estimating the shelf stability of packaged beer by measuring the increase in chill haze caused by 5-7 day storage at elevated (40-60°C.) temperatures. Results should be used with caution; estimates should be checked against shelf-stability in the field.
  
Fore MasherDevice to moisten the crushed malt before entering the mash tank; also called "Pony" masher.
  
FriabilityEase of pulverizing, mellowness.
  
Fungus (Plural: Fungi) A Eukaryote possessing a cell wall. Fungi cannot conduct photosynthesis and they feed on organic matter. Fungi include mushrooms and moulds.
  
Fusel OilA mixture of amyl alcohol, isoamyl alcohol and some lower alcohol and their esters.
  
GallonLiquid volume measure:
One U.S. gallon = 3.785 liters
One British gallon = 4.546 liters
  
GasA state in which the volume of a substance changes in direct proportion to its absolute pressure and its absolute temperature. In the gaseous state a given volume of any substance contains the same number of atoms or molecules.
  
Gas VolumeVolume of carbon dioxide in beer compared to beer of Beer liquid volume.
  
GelatinizeTo bring the starch into a jelly-like consistency during mashing.
  
GerminationBeginning of vegetation or growth in seeds.
  
Gibberellic AcidIs an additive often used in malting to assist the penetration of water into the grain.
  
GlobulinsIn the American classification of proteins, the globulins are simple proteins, insoluble in water, but soluble in dilute neutral solutions of salts of strong acids and strong bases. Example: serum globulin and edestin of hemp seed.
  
GlucoseC6H12O6; dextrose.
  
GlutenThe viscid substance which gives adhesiveness to dough; an insoluble protein.
  
GlycogenA white, amorphous, tasteless carbohydrate, related to starch and dextrin. One of the constituents of the yeast cell.
  
GrantA horizontally placed vessel between straining tank and brew kettle, to facilitate the straining of the wort.
  
GristGrain to be, or that has been, ground
  
GritsHulled and coarsely ground grain; especially coarse hominy.
  
GumAny one of a class of colloidal substance exuded by, or extracted from, gum plants.
  
Gum ArabicA mixture of several gums, the best being that obtained from Acacia Senegal; it is usually completely soluble in water.
  
GypsumSulfate of lime combined with water forms gypsum. Plaster of Paris is burnt gypsum, or gypsum freed from one half of its water content.
  
Hardness (of)Water's component of soluble calcium and magnesium salts equals water) hardness. It is usually expressed in terms of calcium carbonate equivalents. Some calcium in the brewing water is desirable for the protection and stimulation of malt enzymes. Elsewhere in the brewery, hardness results in the deposition of hard scale when water is heated or evaporated, and is therefore undesirable.
  
Head (of beer)The foam on beer.
  
HominyA dry corn product made by breaking the kernel into particles of even size, larger than those usually called "grits" in brewing.
  
Hop JackA hop strainer.
  
Hop NoseThe fragrant odor of hops in beer.
  
Hop PetalsThe small leaves projecting form the spindle of the hop cone, consisting of bracts and bracteoles.
  
Hormone A chemical, often a polypeptide, that acts as a messenger, relaying instructions to stop or start certain physiological activities. Hormones are synthesized in one type of cell and then released to direct the function of other cell types.
  
Humiditya. The absolute humidity is the amount of vapor actually present in the air and is expressed either in its expansive force, or in its weight per given volume.

b. Relative humidity is the ratio of the quantity of vapor actually present, to the greatest amount possible at the given condition. Complete saturation of the air by a vapor is designated as Humidity 100.
  
HydrationA special case of solvation, where water is the solvent.
  
HydrometerA floating instrument for determining specific gravities; especially of liquids and solutions. It is usually a hollow glass or metal instrument, weighted at one end so as to float upright. The stem of the instrument is graduated so as to indicate the gravity of the liquid. Many instruments, for use with specific solutions, have arbitrary scales and are usually known by the names of the inventors, such as Balling and Plato.
  
HygrometerAn apparatus for measuring the degree of moisture of the atmosphere.
  
HygroscopicReadily absorbing, becoming coated with, and retaining moisture, but not enough to make a liquid.
  
IndicatorA substance, which by some visible change, such as a change of color, indicates the condition of a solution as to the presence of free acid, alkali, or other substances. Indicators are employed in volumetric (titrimetric) analysis to indicate the end points of reactions.
  
InfectionThe presence of undesired or foreign micro-organisms in a culture medium or system.
  
InfusionUpward infusion: Heating the mash stepwise to no more than Mashing 78°C. without adding portion of boiling mash.
  
Initial MashingThe temperature at which malt and water are brought together at Temp commencement of mashing.
  
InoculationThe introduction of minute organisms, like yeast or bacteria to culture media.
  
IodineA non-metallic element of the halogen group.
  
Iodine TestIn brewing this test is generally used to check on the degradation of starch to dextrins and malt sugar. Iodine turns from a yellow to dark blue, purple or red with various starches and dextrins, but not with sugars.
  
Irish MossIs dried red marine algae Chondrus crispus.
  
IsinglassA semi-transparent, whitish and very pure form of gelatine, prepared from the air-bladders of certain fish, originally sturgeons, now largely cod, ling and carp.
  
Iso-electric PointpH value at which the electrical charge of an amino acid is zero.
  
Isohumulones or Iso-alpha Acid Isomerized form of alpha acids from hops. Isohumulone content is related to the hop bitterness of beer.
  
KegA single concentric aperture container in aluminum and stainless steel, ranging in size from 5 liters (1.1 Imp. Gallon) to 170 liters (36 Imp. Gallon). Originally designed for automated processing, improved dispensing and extending the shelf life of filtered beers by dispensing under inert gas (CO2 and/or N2) pressure.
  
KernelThe whole grain or seed of a cereal or the inner portion of a seed.
  
KilnA stove or furnace for hardening, burning or drying materials, such as bricks, grains, or hops.
  
LagerTo age; to store, frequently while a slow after or secondary fermentation process under bunging pressure is taking place; lager means storage in German.
  
Lauter TubVertical and usually cylindrical, straining tank having a false bottom for separating the wort from the spent grains.
  
LauteringThe separation of sweet wort from spent grains
  
LeachingRemoval of dissolvable matter from its mixture with an insoluble solid; major part occurring during mashing
  
LimeA caustic, highly infusible solid, white when pure, chemically CaO2, obtained by calcining limestone shells or other forms of calcium carbonate; called also quicklime, burnt lime, caustic lime; quicklime develops great heat when treated with water; forming slacked lime.
  
LipaseAny of a class of enzymes that accelerate the hydrolysis of fats to fatty acids and glycerol.
  
LiquefactionThe act or process of transforming any substance into a liquid, especially the conversion of a solid into a liquid by heat, or of a gas into a liquid by cooling or pressure.
  
LupulinThe fine, yellow, resinous powder on the strobile of hops.
  
LysisBreaking apart of cells.
  
MaizeIndian corn.
  
MaltingSteeping, germinating and drying grains, particularly barley.
  
MaltoseA crystalline sugar C12H22O11 formed from starch by the action of amylase. It is dextrorotatory and the main source of fermentable extract in brewing.
  
MediumA mixture of nutrients needed for cell growth.
  
Micron0.001 millimeter.
  
MildewA thin, whitish growth produced on organic matter and on plants by fungi (as of the families Peronosporaceae).
  
MineralAny element or compound occurring naturally in the mineral kingdom as distinguished from occurrence in either the vegetable or animal kingdom.
  
MoldA growth, often wooly in appearance, produced by saprophytic fungi on various forms of organic matter, especially when damp or decaying.
NitrogenA colorless, gaseous element, tasteless and odorless, constituting about four-fifths of the atmosphere by volume and a constituent of all living tissues.
  
Nuclease An enzyme that, by cleaving chemical bonds, breaks down nucleic acids into their constituent nucleotides. See also Exonuclease.
  
Original GravityAbbreviated O.G. Strictly speaking, the specific gravity, but usually taken Gravity to mean the degree Balling or Plato of the wort leaving the brew kettle.
  
OsmoticThe pressure differential that exists between two solutions of different Pressure concentration when placed on opposite sides of a semi-permeable membrane.
  
OxidasesRespiratory enzymes which catalyze oxidation changes.
  
OxidationIn a broad sense, oxidation is the increase in positive valence or decrease in negative valence of any element in a substance. On the basis of the electron theory, oxidation is a process in which an element loses electrons. In a narrow sense, oxidation means the chemical addition of oxygen to a substance.
  
OxygenAn element occurring free as a colorless, odorless, tasteless gas in the atmosphere, of which it forms about 23% by weight and 21% by volume, being slightly heavier than nitrogen.
  
PapainA proteolytic enzyme obtained from the latex of papaya used by brewers to increase the stability of their beer.
  
PasteurizationExposure of coldest point in packaged beer to 140°F or 60°C., for one Unit (PU) minute.
  
PectinA group of substances which consists entirely of a long chain of galacturonic acid units, some of which are esterified with methylalcohol; water dispersable. In the presence of acids and sugar, pectin forms the basis of household jellies.
  
PepsinA proteolytic enzyme secreted in the stomach of higher animals, used as a digestive.
  
Peptide Two or more amino acids joined by a linkage called a peptide bond.
  
PeptizeTo bring into colloidal solution.
  
PeptonizeTo digest or dissolve by a proteolytic ferment.
  
PhenolAny one of a series of aromatic hydroxyl derivatives which has the OH group directly attached to the benzene ring. Specifically the term phenol is applied to carbolic acid, C6H5OH.
  
PitchingTo add yeast to wort.
  
PlasticA substance capable of or the property of being deformed continuously and permanently in any direction without rupture, under a stress greater than the yield value.
Polymerase General term for enzymes that carry out the synthesis of nucleic acids.
  
Polypeptide Long chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds.
  
PrecipitateTo separate in solid form, as from a solution. A substance separated from a solution.
  
ProteaseProteolytic enzyme which breaks down high molecular weight proteins into lower molecular weight. Proteases in malt are active during the protein rest at 40°C.-55°C. in the mash. Commercial proteases of plant, fungi, or bacterial origin are used in the brewhouse to supplement malt protease and more prominently in the cellar to chillproof the beer.
  
ProteinAny one of a class of naturally occurring compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, often sulfur, phosphorus, occasionally iron and a few other elements. They are essentially very complex combinations of amino acids and are constituents of all living cells, both animal and vegetable. Since most proteins contain about 16% nitrogen, it is customary in analytical chemistry to multiply the total nitrogen by the factor 6.25 in computing the percent of protein in a sample.
  
Pure culture In vitro growth of only one type of microorganism.
  
PycnometerNarrow mouth flask used to determine the specific gravity of wort or beer.
  
pHThe negative logarithm of the hydrogen ion concentration. pH values range from 0 to 14, below 7 being the acid range and above 7 the basic range.
  
RadicleThe lower portion of the axis of an embryo seedling.
  
RancidHaving a smell or taste of stale fats or oils.
  
Real ExtractThe extract in dealcoholized beer.
  
ReaumurThermometric scale in which 0° marks the freezing point and 80° the boiling point of water.
  
ReducingA chemical reagent which brings about the reduction of some other Agent substance and is itself simultaneously oxidized. See reduction and oxidation.
  
ReductionIn a narrow sense reduction means the decrease in the oxygen content, or in the increase in the hydrogen content of a substance. In a broad sense, reduction is the decrease in positive valence or the increase in negative valence of an element.
  
RefrigerantSubstance such as ammonia, fluorocarbons (e.g., Freon) and less frequently CO2 and SO2 capable of removing heat from their surroundings by boiling at the desired temperature under economical and safe operating conditions. Also see "Brine."
  
Restriction enzyme An enzyme that breaks DNA in highly specific locations, creating gaps into which new genes can be inserted.
  
Roasted MaltMalt used for coloring purposes.
  
RousingTurbulent action in a liquid caused by mechanical agitation or introduction of a gas.
  
Ruh (G)Period of storage after main fermentation.
  
  
SaccharometerAny devise for measuring the amount of sugar in a solution. A specially calibrated hydrometer.
  
SaltA class of compounds formed when the hydrogen of an acid is partly or wholly replaced by a metal or a metallic radical. Specifically, the term salt is applied to sodium chloride, NaCl.
  
Saponifi-The treatment of a fatty acid with an inorganic base (caustic soda) to form cation a salt (soap) and an alcohol (glycerine).
  
SarcinaUndesirable microorganism from brewing standpoint. Classified as pediococcus cerevisiae.
  
SaturatedA solution which contains any constant temperature as much dissolved Solution substance as it can possibly hold in presence of solid solute.
  
Seed YeastYeast used to start fermentation in a brew.
  
SlurryA thin mixture of water and insoluble solids.
  
SoapA sodium or potassium salt of a fatty acid of high molecular weight.
  
SolubilityThe quantity of solute present in a given amount of the saturated solution, at a certain temperature, is called the solubility of the solute.
  
SoluteWhen a solid is dissolved in a liquid, the solid is termed the solute, the liquid the solvent. When one liquid is dissolved in a second liquid, the liquid present in the smaller amount is usually called the solute. In this case, the designation is arbitrary, particularly when the liquids are completely miscible.
  
SolutionA homogeneous mixture formed by the process in which a substance, whether solid, liquid or gaseous is dissolved into a liquid (or by extension, with a solid, or gas) called the solvent. The term is usually associated with liquids, but may include solids, as in alloys, or gaseous mixtures.
  
SorghumAny representative of the genus (sorghum) or tropical cereal grasses.
  
SpargeTo distribute water over grains or hops in order to wash out extract.
  
Specific GravityUsually given for liquids as specific gravity 20°C./20°C. is the ratio of Gravity the weight of a volume of liquid at 20°C. and the same volume of water at 20°C.
  
SpigotA faucet used to regulate the flow of liquids from the bunghole of a barrel.
  
SpilesSmall, wooden pegs or plugs, used to close vent holes in barrels.
  
StarchA white, odorless, tasteless, granular or powdery complex carbohydrate. It gives a deep blue color with iodine.
  
Steam BeerTop fermenting beer of very high carbon dioxide content, originated in California.
  
SteepingTo prepare grain for germination by soaking in water, usually to 45% moisture.
  
SterileFree from living microorganisms, as bacteria, or their visible spores.
  
SubstrateThe substance upon which an enzyme acts.
  
Substrate Material acted on by an enzyme.
  
SugarAny of a group of carbohydrate compounds of relatively low molecular weight and comprised of not to exceed three monosaccharide units. They may be monosaccharide such as dextrose, disaccharide such as maltose or trisaccharide such as raffinose.
  
SuspensionThe state of a solid when its particles are mixed with, but undissolved in, a fluid or another solid; a two-phase system consisting of a finely divided solid dispersed in a solid, liquid or gas.
  
TanninA strongly astringent substance obtained from gall nuts, sumac, etc., used in chillproofing of beer. Also present in hops and malt in small amounts.
  
Template A molecule that serves as the pattern for synthesizing another molecule.
  
Thermo-BacteriaHeat resistant microorganisms undesirable in brewing.
  
TitrationA method, or the process, of using a standard solution to determine the strength of another solution.
  
Trub (G)The haze or flock appearing in wort by boiling or cooling.
  
Try Cock/Test CockSampling device.
  
UnderdoughThe sludge contained between the false bottom and the real bottom of a straining tank. It consists of rather hard parts of the mash and contains at times considerable amounts of starch.
  
UpperdoughThe sludge on top of the layer of grains in a straining tank, consisting of finely divided light particles, mostly coagulated protein.
  
VatUsually a fermenting or storage vessel.
  
Vent HoleA small hole to allow air to escape.
  
ViscosityThe resistance offered by a fluid (liquid or gas) to flow. The viscosity is a characteristic property and is a measure of the combined effects of adhesion and cohesion.
  
VitaminAny one of a group of constituents of most foods in their natural state which are essential for normal nutrition.
  
VolatileIn chemistry, any one of those acids which can be distilled from an Acid aqueous solution at atmospheric pressure, such as acetic, and butyric acid. Fixed acids such as tartaric, phosphoric, etc., cannot be removed by distillation.
  
  
WaxAny one of a class of substances of plant or animal origin, insoluble in water, partly soluble in alcohol, ether, etc., and miscible in all proportions with oils and fats. They consist of esters and often, in addition, free fatty acids, free alcohols and higher hydrocarbons.
  
WhirlpoolRound cylindrical flat bottom tank into which hot Tank wort from the brew kettle is pumped at high velocity and tangentially to its straight wall. This high speed stream causes the wort in the tank to rotate slowly and do deposit its trub in a more or less compact cone in the center of the tank.
  
WortThe liquid obtained when malt enzymes attach a heated aqueous slurry of ground endosperm of malted and unmalted cereal.
  
YeastA group of unicellular organisms of the family Saccharomycetaceae which ferment sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide by virtue of its enzymes (Zymase).
  
Yeast A general term for single-celled fungi that reproduce by budding. Some yeasts can ferment carbohydrates (starches and sugars), and thus are important in brewing and baking.
  
Yeast CropYeast collected from fermentors during or after the fermentation.
  
Yield ofNumber of pounds of extract, obtained from 100 pounds of brewing material, given in percent. Also kilos extract per kilo brewing material. Distinguish between laboratory yield of malt and adjunct which is determined by standard ASBC methods and brewhouse yield, which depends on equipment and operating conditions. Brewhouse yield ranges from 92 to 98% of laboratory yields.
  
ZymaseA group of enzymes (originally found in yeasts and bacteria) which, in the presence of oxygen, convert glucose and a few other carbohydrates into carbon dioxide and water or, in the absence of oxygen, into alcohol and carbon dioxide or into lactic acid.
  

References: Definitions were adapted in part from those on the website for the Siebel Institute.


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